FRAME BUILDINGS (UPPER STRUCTURE)
Frame building is part of the building which is the main structure supporting the weight of the building and external loads acting on it. Building framework for simple or multi-storey buildings are low, generally in the form of a portal frame structure (frame structure). This structure in the form of a framework consisting of columns and beams is a series that became a strong unity.
Column portal should be made continuously from the bottom floor to the top floor, which means that the location of the columns portal should not be shifted on each floor, as this will eliminate the stiffness characteristics of the structure of the portal frame. So it should be avoided sketch portal columns are not the same for each layer floor. Increasing the size of the column may be smaller or older. Changes in column dimensions must be made on plywood floor on one lane so that the column has the same stiffness.
Stringing portal beam columns into a single unit. Beam receive the entire load of the floor plate and continue to support columns. Relationship beams and columns are flip-flops, which is a support system that can withstand the moment, Style vertical and horizontal force. To add rigidity beams, the base section at a meeting with thick columns may be added.
– The dead load is the weight of all parts of the building are fixed, including any additional elements, complementary work (finishing), as well as tools or machines, which are an integral part of the framework of the building.
– Cost of living is the weight of the occupant and or items that can move, which is not part of the building. On the roof, the burden of life including the stagnant rain water.
– Wind load is a load acting on the buildings or parts thereof, due to the difference in air pressure (strong wind gusts).
– Cost of the magnitude of the earthquake is the vibration that occurs in the skeletal structure of the building due to ground movement by the earthquake, is calculated based on a dynamic analysis.
– Special Charges workload is derived from the difference in temperature, decrease in foundation, shrinkage materials, brake force of the faucet, the vibration of heavy machinery.
Order portal for low-rise buildings, generally made of concrete construction materials.
reinforced. Concrete is a construction material that is able to resist the urge style, being able to hold the steel reinforcement tensile force, so the material is a reinforced concrete building construction that is able to withstand force and tensile force urges, that the forces that are destructive to the construction.
In addition it is also reinforced concrete construction earthquake resistant, fireproof, is a strong and durable material that does not need maintenance and can be long-lived.
The steps in the planning of the structure of multi-storey buildings are:
– Count mechanics: at this stage determined the amount of load that works, then on the basis of image construction and method applicable count, look for the magnitude of the moment, latitude and shear force due to constant load.
– Construction Planning: eg construction of reinforced concrete will be used, then the material is based on allowable stress and count the results of mechanics, it can be determined the dimensions of the concrete structure and tulangannya.
– Control of seismic forces: at this stage of the load while controlling the count of the results that have been obtained dimensional structure, so that later the structure actually has a solid construction, safe and stable.
To make buildings more resistant to earthquakes tehadap should not always enlarge the dimensions of the elements of its structure. This will only make the building into a heavy and unfavorable to seismic forces, because the more weight will be the greater of a building he absorbs style. Hopefully this article useful in adding to your knowledge and insight in the field of building. Thank you